Episode 8 American College Campus Part 2


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Notes for episodes 7 and 8
American College and University Campus

In episodes 7 and 8, we look at the history of the American college and university campus from the commencement of British American settlement through modern times. The open and public spaces of campuses, as well as the design of buildings and overall layouts, reflect societal trends, philosophies, and prejudices as much as the changing purpose of higher education itself. We explore starting with the first colleges, their charters and founding as institutions meant to educate upper class white men through the post World War II period that has seen a democratization of higher education.

Our moments in equity for these two episodes look at how college establishment and funding were intimately connected to the slave trade, slave labor, and the profits from the sale of slaves in the British colonies and in the pre-Civil War United States.


Paul Venable Turner, Campus: An American planning tradition (MIT Press 1987)

A History of Stanford, Stanford University (Undated) – https://www.stanford.edu/about/history/

College of William & Mary, Wikipedia (Updated Feb. 17, 2022) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/College_of_William_%26_Mary

Royal Charter (Feb. 8, 1693) [posted on Internet Archive Wayback Machine (Updated Mar. 26, 2012) – https://web.archive.org/web/20120529035803/http://scdb.swem.wm.edu/wiki/index.php/Charter#Transcription_of_the_Royal_Charter]

History, Columbia University in the City of New York (Undated) – https://www.columbia.edu/content/history

Frederick Law Olmsted: College and School Campuses, National Park Service (undated) – https://www.nps.gov/frla/learn/historyculture/college-campuses.htm

Judith Schiff, Resources on Yale History: A Brief History of Yale, Yale University Library (Updated June 22, 2021) – https://guides.library.yale.edu/yalehistory

Rebecca Woodham, David J. Trowbridge, and Clio Admin, Nott Memorial, Union College, Clio: Your Guide to History (August 1, 2021, accessed Mar. 15, 2022) – https://theclio.com/entry/6225

Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1764-1820), Dickinson College Archives & Special Collections (2005) – https://archives.dickinson.edu/people/benjamin-henry-latrobe-1764-1820

Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Wikipedia (Updated Nov. 23, 2021) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Henry_Latrobe

Lisa Chase, Imagining Utopia: Landscape Design at Smith College, 1871-1910, 65 New England Quarterly no. 4, p. 560 (Dec. 1992) – https://garden.smith.edu/sites/garden/files/imagining-utopia-lisa-chase.pdf

Jim McCarthy, Spotlight on…Gallaudet University, National Association for Olmsted Parks (Mar. 14, 2022) – https://olmsted200.org/spotlight-on-gallaudet-university/

Rebecca Beatrice Brooks, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, History of Massachusetts Blog (May 30, 2021) – https://historyofmassachusetts.org/cambridge-ma-history/

Brief History of Cambridge, Mass., Cambridge Historical Commission (undated) – https://www.cambridgema.gov/historic/cambridgehistory

Harvard Square is famous for a lot of things, History, Harvard Square Business Association – https://www.harvardsquare.com/history/

John Harvard (clergyman), Wikipedia (Updated July 28, 2022) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Harvard_(clergyman)

Michael Johnson, 94 University Place: Old Mill, Burlington 1830 (Undated) – https://www.uvm.edu/histpres/HPJ/burl1830/streets/university/oldmill.html

Prof. Thomas Visser, Old Mill, University of Vermont (Undated; based on a professional report on the history of Old Mill prepared in 1988 by Thomas Visser and MaryJo Llewellyn of the UVM Historic Preservation Program's Architectural Conservation and Education Service.) – https://www.uvm.edu/~campus/oldmill/oldmillhistory.html

Vassar College, Wikipedia (Updated July 5, 2022) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vassar_College#History

Historic Horseshoe, South Carolina, University History, University of South Carolina (Undated) – https://www.sc.edu/about/our_history/university_history/historic_horseshoe/index.php

Lydia Brandt, University of Virginia, Architecture of the, Encyclopedia Virginia (Dec. 14, 2020) – https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entries/university-of-virginia-the-architecture-of-the/

History and Traditions, Washington University in St. Louis (Undated) – https://wustl.edu/about/history-traditions/#:~:text=In%201853%2C%20prominent%20St.,of%20immigrants%20flooded%20into%20St.

Smith College, Wikipedia (Updated Aug. 4, 2022) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smith_College

Smith History, Smith College (Undated) – https://www.smith.edu/about-smith/smith-history

Moments in Equity

Stephen Smith and Kate Ellis, Shackled Legacy – History shows slavery helped build many U.S. colleges and universities, American Public Media Reports (Sept. 4, 2017) – https://www.apmreports.org/episode/2017/09/04/shackled-legacy

Yoruhu Williams, Why Thomas Jefferson’s Anti-Slavery Passage Was Removed from the Declaration of Independence, History.com (June 29, 2020) – https://www.history.com/news/declaration-of-independence-deleted-anti-slavery-clause-jefferson

Nancy Clanton, Sally Hemings: Mother of 6 of Thomas Jefferson’s children was also his property, Atlanta Journal Constitution (Feb. 27, 2019)– https://www.ajc.com/news/national/sally-hemings-mother-six-thomas-jefferson-children-was-also-his-property/oKIBF28ni64Yv4i6x2NHJM/#:~:text=Jefferson%20fathered%20all%20six%20of,Hemings%20continued%20in%20the%20interview

Rachel Swarns, 272 Slaves Were Sold to Save Georgetown. What Does It Owe Their Descendants?, NY Times (Apr. 16, 2016) – https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/17/us/georgetown-university-search-for-slave-descendants.html

Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, Wikipedia (Updated Mar. 12, 2022) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_abolition_of_slavery_and_serfdom

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